July 12, by Professor Rollmops I began writing this article inwhilst still researching my PhD at Cambridge. It was largely finished, but with significant holes which I have finally decided to fill in.
Carthage was a rich, flourishing Phoenician city-state that intended to dominate the Mediterranean area.
The two cities were allies in the times of Pyrrhus, who was a menace to both, but with Rome's hegemony in mainland Italy and the Carthaginian thalassocracythese cities became the two major powers in the Western Mediterranean and their contention over the Mediterranean led to conflict.
After the Carthaginian intercession, Messana asked Rome to expel the Carthaginians.
Rome entered this war because Syracuse and Messana were too close to the newly conquered Greek cities of Southern Italy and Carthage was now able to make an offensive through Roman territory; along with this, Rome could extend its domain over Sicily.
Carthage was a maritime power, and the Roman lack of ships and naval experience would make the path to the victory a long and difficult one for the Roman Republic.
Despite this, after more than 20 years of war, Rome defeated Carthage and a peace treaty was signed. Among the reasons for the Second Punic War  was the subsequent war reparations Carthage acquiesced to at the end of the First Punic War. Rome fought this war simultaneously with the First Macedonian War.
The war began with the audacious invasion of Hispania by Hannibal, the Carthaginian general who had led operations on Sicily in the First Punic War. The best way found to defeat Hannibal's purpose of causing the Italians to abandon Rome was to delay the Carthaginians with a guerrilla war of attrition, a strategy propounded by Quintus Fabius Maximus, who would be nicknamed Cunctator "delayer" in Latinand whose strategy would be forever after known as Fabian.
Due to this, Hannibal's goal was unachieved: he could not bring enough Italian cities to revolt against Rome and replenish his diminishing army, and he thus lacked the machines and manpower to besiege Rome.
Still, Hannibal's invasion lasted over 16 years, ravaging Italy. Finally, when the Romans perceived that Hannibal's supplies were running out, they sent Scipio, who had defeated Hannibal's brother Hasdrubal in modern-day Spain, to invade the unprotected Carthaginian hinterland and force Hannibal to return to defend Carthage itself.
At great cost, Rome had made significant gains: the conquest of Hispania by Scipio, and of Syracuse, the last Greek realm in Sicily, by Marcellus. More than a half century after these events, Carthage was humiliated and Rome was no more concerned about the African menace.
The Republic's focus now was only to the Hellenistic kingdoms of Greece and revolts in Hispania. However, Carthage, after having paid the war indemnity, felt that its commitments and submission to Rome had ceased, a vision not shared by the Roman Senate.
Ambassadors were sent to Carthage, among them was Marcus Porcius Catowho after seeing that Carthage could make a comeback and regain its importance, ended all his speeches, no matter what the subject was, by saying: " Ceterum censeo Carthaginem esse delendam " "Furthermore, I think that Carthage must be destroyed".
Carthage resisted well at the first strike, with the participation of all the inhabitants of the city. However, Carthage could not withstand the attack of Scipio Aemilianuswho entirely destroyed the city and its walls, enslaved and sold all the citizens and gained control of that region, which became the province of Africa.
Thus ended the Punic War period. All these wars resulted in Rome's first overseas conquests Sicily, Hispania and Africa and the rise of Rome as a significant imperial power and began the end of democracy.
At this time Rome was a consolidated empire—in the military view—and had no major enemies. Gaius Mariusa Roman general and politician who dramatically reformed the Roman military Foreign dominance led to internal strife.
Senators became rich at the provinces ' expense; soldiers, who were mostly small-scale farmers, were away from home longer and could not maintain their land; and the increased reliance on foreign slaves and the growth of latifundia reduced the availability of paid work.
Violent gangs of the urban unemployed, controlled by rival Senators, intimidated the electorate through violence. The situation came to a head in the late 2nd century BC under the Gracchi brothers, a pair of tribunes who attempted to pass land reform legislation that would redistribute the major patrician landholdings among the plebeians.Roman Civilization Essay Examples.
The Greek Architecture. words. 1 page. Three Major Civilizations That Contributed Greatly to Humanity. words. 1 page.
An Introduction to the History of Ancient Civilizations; The Romans, the Greeks and the Hebrews. words. 1 page. An Analysis of the Roman Empire as a Sophisticated Civilization. The Ancient Roman Gladiators: History, Types & Facts.
During this event, seventy-four gladiators fought. For the first time in history, the gladiators took center stage and overshadowed other. BCE: First recorded Roman gladiator games organised by two sons to commemorate the death of their father. BCE: First official Roman gladiator games.
73 BCE - 71 BCE: Gladiator Spartacus leads a slave revolt in southern Italy and wins several victories against the Roman army. The gladiators had an interesting history, as well as different classes and fighting styles.
After the reign of the tyrant Nero, the colosseum, or Flavian Amphitheatre, was built on what was his Golden House during the age of Vespasian.
The Thracian reputation propagated by Greek and Roman literature had an impact on Roman sporting culture. Thracians were considered by ancient writers to be incredibly fierce warriors, and this.
Livy places the first Roman gladiator games ( BC) in the early stage of Rome's First Punic War against Carthage, when Decimus Iunius Brutus Scaeva had three gladiator pairs fight to the death in Rome's "cattle market" Forum (Forum Boarium) to honor his dead father, Brutus Pera.