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Introduction The goal of Indian education from the s through the s was to assimilate Indian people into the melting pot of America by placing them in institutions where traditional ways could be replaced by those sanctioned by the government.
Federal Indian policy called for the removal of children from their families and in many cases enrollment in a government run boarding school. In this way, the policy makers believed, young people would be immersed in the values and practical knowledge of the dominant American society while also being kept away from any influences imparted by their traditionally-minded relatives.
Indian Boarding School Movement The Indian boarding school movement began in the post Civil War era when idealistic reformers turned their attention to the plight of Indian people.
Whereas before many Americans regarded the native people with either fear or loathing, the reformers believed that with the proper education and treatment Indians could become just like other citizens.
They convinced the leaders of Congress that education could change at least some of the Indian population into patriotic and productive members of society. Pratt was a leading proponent of the assimilation through education policy. Believing that Indian ways were inferior to those of whites, he subscribed to the principle, "kill the Indian and save the man.
Photographs taken at the school illustrate how they looked "before" and "after". The dramatic contrast between traditional clothing and hairstyles and Victorian styles of dress helped convince the public that through boarding school education Indians could become completely "civilized".
Following the model of Carlisle, additional off reservation boarding schools were established in other parts of the country, including Forest Grove, Oregon later known as Chemawa. Reservation boarding schools had the advantage of being closer to Indian communities and as a result had lower transportation costs.
Contact between students and their families was somewhat restricted as students remained at the school for eight to nine months of the year. Relatives could visit briefly at prescribed times. School administrators worked constantly to keep the students at school and eradicate all vestiges of their tribal cultures.
Day schools, which were the most economical, usually provided only a minimal education. They worked with the boarding schools by transferring students for more advanced studies. In the Pacific Northwest, treaties negotiated with the Indians during the s included promises of educational support for the tribes.
For example, Article 10 of the Medicine Creek Treaty signed by members of the Nisqually, Squaxin, Puyallup and Steilacoom Tribes on December 26, called for the establishment of an agricultural and industrial school "to be free to the children of said tribes for a period of 20 years.
A similar clause appears in the Treaty of Point Elliott, signed by representatives of tribes living in the central and northern Puget Sound region. The promised schools did not come into existence for several years.
In the s and s a few small reservation boarding schools were established on the Chehalis, Skokomish and Makah Reservations.
These institutions, which had fewer than 50 students, were all closed by and replaced by day schools. In Tacoma, a one-room shack served as a day school for young Puyallup Indians beginning in By students had begun boarding at the school and during the s enrollment increased to pupils.
At the turn of the century, Cushman Indian School had become a large industrial boarding school, drawing over students from around the Northwest and Alaska.
The Report of Superintendent of Indian Schools praised Cushman for being well equipped for industrial training and photographs show a modern machine shop. Cushman remained one of the largest on reservation boarding schools in the region until it closed in Indian Training School boys activities Meanwhile, on many reservations missionaries operated schools that combined religious with academic training.
Chirouse opened a school in for six boys and five girls. By he had 15 pupils and the school continued to grow under the auspices of the Sisters of Providence.
At these missionary run schools, traditional religious and cultural practices were strongly discouraged while instruction in the Christian doctrines took place utilizing pictures, statues, hymns, prayers and storytelling.
Some missionary schools received federal support, particularly at times when Congress felt less inclined to provide the large sums of money needed to establish government schools. The Tulalip Mission School became the first contract Indian school, an arrangement whereby the government provided annual funds to maintain the buildings while the Church furnished books, clothing, housing and medical care.
In Congress drastically reduced the funding for mission schools and eventually, in the winter ofthe Tulalip school became a federal facility. The old school buildings were destroyed by fire in On January 23,exactly fifty years after the signing of the Point Elliott Treaty, a new and larger school opened along the shores of Tulalip Bay.
The children ranged in age from 6 to 18 years and came from many different reservations as well as some off reservation communities.Native American mythology from Godchecker - the legendary mythology encyclopedia.
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Native American Land Rights Essay The land rights of the American Indians versus The Rights of the White Man. Zoe R. Murphy University Of Phoenix, Axia As the Native population continues to grow and create an abundance of resources such as casinos, the White Man has found ways to. Native American: Native American, member of any of the aboriginal peoples of the Western Hemisphere, although the term often connotes only those groups whose original territories were in present-day Canada and the United States.
Learn more about the history and culture of Native Americans in this article. New content is added regularly to the website, including online exhibitions, videos, lesson plans, and issues of the online journal History Now, which features essays by leading scholars on major topics in American history.
Indians were not even considered American citizens at the time of Reconstruction; the 14th Amendment that gave blacks their citizenship specifically excluded Native Americans. Without this most basic acknowledgement, it was impossible for Indians to gain any of the freedoms or .
The trade between the Europeans and the Native Americans was a representation of a significant development regarding the former limited exchange that took place in the traditional native .