Rodkin Research indicates that peers play an essential role in promoting or preventing bullying. The conference brought together President Barack Obama and members of his cabinet, First Lady Michelle Obama, youth, parents, researchers, school officials, and other groups to craft a national strategy for reducing and ending bullying in schools. A longer version of this report was included in the briefing book distributed at the conference.
In a nationally representative sample of over 15, students in the United States grades 6 through 10 Aggression and violence during childhood and adolescence have been the focus of much research over the past several decades e.
These researchers have found that serious forms of aggression remain relatively stable from childhood through adulthood; however, Loeber and Hay argue that mild forms of aggression may not begin for some children until early or late adolescence.
One notable gap in the evolving literature on bullying and victimization during early adolescence is the role that peers play in promoting bullying and victimization by either reinforcing the aggressor, failing to intervene to stop the victimization, or affiliating with students who bully.
This Digest looks at the limited research available on the role of the peer group in bullying to learn more about how bullying and victimization might emerge or continue during early adolescence.
Definitions of Bullying While definitions of bullying often differ semantically, many of them have one concept in common: The following definitions are common in the literature: It is during adolescence that peer groups become stratified and issues of acceptance and popularity become increasingly important.
Research indicates, for example, that toughness and aggressiveness are important status considerations for boys, while appearance is a central determinant of social status among girls Eder, Some researchers believe that the pressure to gain peer acceptance and status may be related to an increase in teasing and bullying.
This behavior may be intended to demonstrate superiority over other students for boys and girls, either through name-calling or ridiculing.
Setting the Stage for Bullying in Middle School Research with elementary school children in other countries supports the view that peer group members reinforce and maintain bullying e. These authors contend that bullying can best be understood from a social-interactional perspective i.
Similarly, in a survey study of sixth-graders in Finland, the majority of students participated in the bullying process in some capacity, and their various participant roles were significantly related to social status within their respective classrooms Salmivalli et al. Clearly, peers play an instrumental role in bullying and victimization on elementary school playgrounds and within classrooms.
Transition to Middle School and "Fitting In" Less well understood are the peer dynamics associated with bullying during the transition from elementary school to middle school. Some researchers speculate that this transition can cause stress that might promote bullying behavior, as students attempt to define their place in the new social structure.
For example, changing from one school to another often leads to an increase in emotional and academic difficulties Rudolph et al.
The authors speculated that the sixth-graders were assimilating into the middle school, where bullying behavior was part of the school culture.
This speculation is supported by the theory that bullying is a learned behavior, and that as they enter middle school, sixth-graders have not yet learned how to interact positively in the social milieu of the school. Many sixth-graders who wish to "fit in" may adopt the behaviors--including teasing--of those students who have been in the school longer and who have more power to dictate the social norm.
Pellegrini and colleagues found that bullying enhanced within-group status and popularity among fifth-graders making the transition through the first year of middle school.Peer Influence on Bullying Essay Peer pressure is the pressure given to an individual to think and behave in a certain way in order to be accepted by his peers.
According to Floyd Allport (), our behavior is influenced by behaviours and actions of others. A person may engage in. Research seems to indicate that the influence of peer pressure on bullying is strongest during the middle school years.
More than million school-aged children are bullied each year, and.
The more you can connect with your kids about bullying, the more you will be able to have a positive influence. Give your kids ideas on how to respond to peer pressure. And be sure they are equipped with a solid self-esteem, assertiveness skills and social skills.
Peer pressure can impact bullying behavior both in positive and negative ways. For example, the influence can have negative effects if a peer group’s bullying behavior encourages others to .
Position paper Bullying and peer victimization: Position paper of the Society for Adolescent Medicine Marla E. Eisenberg, Sc.D., M.P.H.a, and Matthew C. Aalsma, Ph.D.b aDivision of General Pediatrics and Adolescent Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota bSection of Adolescent Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiania A study by Espelage and Holt () of middle school students (grades ), using a survey that included demographic questions, self-report, and peer-report measures of bullying and victimization, and measures of other psychosocial variables, examined the .