It is likely that the reader will find in my discussion characteristics that apply to many developed countries and developing ones. Inasmuch as scientific progress is highly dependent on financial support and, in modern times, on general societal support, it is appropriate to discuss the interaction of science and society.
Past and future "entities" are construed as logical constructions or fictions. The opposite of presentism is ' eternalism ', which is the belief that things in the past and things yet to come exist eternally. Another view not held by many philosophers is sometimes called the ' growing block ' theory of time—which postulates that the past and present exist, but the future does not.
Saint Augustine proposed that the present is a knife edge between the past and the future and could not contain any extended period of time.
Contrary to Saint Augustine, some philosophers propose that conscious experience is extended in time. For instance, William James said that time is " Other early philosophers who were presentists include the Buddhists in the tradition Science and its future Indian Buddhism.
A leading scholar from the modern era on Buddhist philosophy is Stcherbatskywho has written extensively on Buddhist presentism: Ultimately real is only the present moment of physical efficiency [i.
Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. October Learn how and when to remove this template message Human behavior is known to encompass anticipation of the future.
Anticipatory behavior can be the result of a psychological outlook toward the future, for examples optimismpessimismand hope. Optimism is an outlook on life such that one maintains a view of the world as a positive place. People would say that optimism is seeing the glass "half full" of water as opposed to half empty.
It is the philosophical opposite of pessimism. Optimists generally believe that people and events are inherently good, so that most situations work out in the end for the best. Hope is a belief in a positive outcome related to events and circumstances in one's life.
Hope implies a certain amount of despair, wanting, wishing, suffering or perseverance — i. Pessimism as stated before is the opposite of optimism.
It is the tendency to see, anticipate, or emphasize only bad or undesirable outcomes, results, or problems. The word originates in Latin from Pessimus meaning worst and Malus meaning bad.
Religion[ edit ] Religions consider the future when they address issues such as karmalife after deathand eschatologies that study what the end of time and the end of the world will be. In religion, major prophets are said to have the power to change the future. Common religious figures have claimed to see into the future, such as minor prophets and diviners.
The term "afterlife" refers to the continuation of existence of the soulspirit or mind of a human or animal after physical deathtypically in a spiritual or ghostlike afterworld.
Deceased persons are usually believed to go to a specific region or plane of existence in this afterworld, often depending on the rightness of their actions during life. Some believe the afterlife includes some form of preparation for the soul to transfer to another body reincarnation.
The major views on the afterlife derive from religionesotericism and metaphysics. There are those who are skeptical of the existence of the afterlife, or believe that it is absolutely impossible, such as the materialist -reductionists, who believe that the topic is supernaturaltherefore does not really exist or is unknowable.
In metaphysical models, theists generally believe some sort of afterlife awaits people when they die.Modern science is distinct in its approach and successful in its results, so it now defines what science is in the strictest sense of the term.
 [b] Science in its original sense was a word for a type of knowledge, rather than a specialized word for the pursuit of such knowledge. May 29, · China invites international researchers to do science on its future space station. New, 9 comments.
The country’s space agency is expanding its international partnerships.
Apr 29, · The future of science: instant distribution. Tim Berners-Lee invented the web in order to make it easier for him and his colleagues to share their research papers.
The . Apr 29, · The future of science: instant distribution. Tim Berners-Lee invented the web in order to make it easier for him and his colleagues to share their research papers.
The web has impacted science. Science fiction uses science and future possibilities in its novels. It may seem like science fiction predicts the future and that it will tell . 5 Things to Know About the Future of Computer Science will be in a few years if it doesn't increase its focus on computer science education.
to shape one's future .