Nearby, in the long-depopulated villages, you can see stirrings of life:
Articles and comments about European women and menstruation from the distant past through the early 20th century With additions about Muslim law and Jewish law. Many people ask me what women did in earlier times about menstruation.
It's usually impossible to say for sure for most cultures, although women have used tampons, pads "rags" and commercial onessponges, grass and other absorbent materials probably for thousands of years.
In European cultures, the history of women, especially their everyday affairs, is inadequate; men ruled the roost and women were "good" for a limited number of things, few worth recording - at least, so thought the men.
Monica Green, of the Duke University history department, warned me of this lack of information right before I opened the actual museumin I had written her after seeing her quoted in a New York Times article about ancient contraception. They write, "Most women seemed to have made their own pads or, like rural women, wore neither pads nor underpants.
When they menstruated, they left a trail of blood behind them. Menstruierten sie, so zogen sie eine Blutspur hinter sich her.
I lived in Germany for 13 years and know that in the Women in early broadcast essay past Germans worried less about body odor than Americans did, who seem to object to any odor at all I'm an American.
And I think that a hundred and more years ago body odor was much more apparent. I suspect that the smell of menstrual blood was much more common and, I suspect, the sight of it, too.
Read more about menstrual odor.
Women Soldiers in the American Civil War" DeAnne Blanton and Lauren Cook Burgess; Louisiana State University Press, remark that most of these women were from working class backgrounds and couldn't write, thus not leaving written records, which would be the case with menstruation if our German sources are correct - not that literate women would eagerly record theirs.
I wonder how this "open" menstruation influenced the behavior of men? It seems likely that women had to conceal both blood and odor before they were able to extensively participate in male business society.
The relationship between men, women, menstruation and women's health is unendingly complex - and interesting. Extrapolating, my guess is that in "European" America and Europe a certain - large? After all, America and Europe were mostly rural, and the standards of living were low.
American slaves might have also bled into their clothing. And there apparently are societies today, in Indiafor example, where women do not try to absorb their bleeding with anything special, or hide the process. But these are just my guesses. It could be that rags were used to maintain hygiene in this enclosed environment, something perhaps less necessary if the women were free.
It seems likely that Australian customs for women of European origin were similar to the European ones of the time, just as in America. Keep in mind that prior to the 20th century, European and American women menstruated infrequently compared with today. They started menstruating laterfrequently in the mid to late teens, and stopped earlier, if they lived long enough to experience menopause, thus creating a shorter time for menstruation married earlier, legitimizing the production of children, which reduced menstruation had more children, and used less contraception, stopping menstruation for long periods breast fed their children longer and more oftenwhich usually stopped menstruation were more likely to be under- and malnourished or sick, or any combination thereof, which can stop menstruation died earlier - stopping it dead Read many of these same points, made by Prof.
These points apply to millions of women today. It's possible that women attained adulthood and gave birth to children, but never menstruated. People could, and often did, interpret menstruation as something bad - a sign of infertility, for example, and meaning the woman was not doing her "job.
This might partly account for the many beliefs about the evil effects of menstruating women: And the ancient Greek physician Hippocrates, of Hippocratic oath fame, may have started the practice of bleeding sick people after observing women recovering from bloating and aches and pains after starting their periods!
An e-mailer wrote the museum in Novemberwhich I should add to this discussion: As with so many cultures, there are rules and etiquettes surrounding menstruation in various Muslim cultures.
Religiously, there are certain rites that women are required to suspend including a type of formal prayer known as salat, and also sexual intercourse during the time that they are menstruating, which they resume after fully immersing and washing themselves in water known as ghusl once the bleeding has stopped.
At the time of the Prophet Muhammad, the women in the Muslim community used to approach the wives of the Prophet, asking them to inspect their cotton wads they used as pads, to check whether or not they had 'finished' their periods. Emission of non-menstrual blood and other bodily fluids do not require suspension of religious rites, but do require a minor ablution to be performed beforehand.
The Prophet himself was asked about what method a particular woman should use to stem the flow of severe menstrual blood.
He advised her that she should use cotton or a cloth. Although another report indicates that for one wife of the Prophet who had extra bleeding non-menstrual blood to place a tray underneath to catch any blood while she prayed. Another hadith tradition reports that: Jewish law From an e-mailer, March I just stumbled upon your piece on menstruation behaviors of women in past generations - fascinating.
I just wanted to mention that it would probably have been highly unlikely that Jewish women did not wear underwear or pads of some sort, as menstruation has many halakhic ramifications in regard to intercourse and other marriage laws which are still very much in use today by Jewish women the world over.What women used for menstruation in the past.
started menstruating later, frequently in the mid to late teens, and stopped earlier, if they lived long enough to experience menopause, thus creating a shorter time for menstruation.
INTRODUCTION by Edward Waterman. Presented here in its entirety is Don Herron's famous essay, "The Dark Barbarian." This essay first appeared in the book of the same name, The Dark Barbarian, and was first published in This book, and the excellent essays within, were the first to take Robert E.
Howard and his work seriously and to consider Robert E. Howard a major literary figure. In at the outbreak of World War One there was nearly million women working in Britain out of a total female population of million.
This may not seem much but compared to what it was in the 's it was a big improvement. During the 's and early 's there were many different /5(6). Broadcasting is the distribution of audio or video content to a dispersed audience via any electronic mass communications medium, but typically one using the electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves), in a one-to-many model.
Broadcasting began with AM radio, which came into popular use around with the spread of vacuum tube radio transmitters and receivers. The Linda Norgrove Foundation is a grant-giving trust that funds education, health and childcare for women and children affected by the war in Afghanistan.
I went to a dinner party at a friend’s home last weekend, and met her five-year-old daughter for the first time. Little Maya was all curly brown hair, doe-like dark eyes, and adorable in her shiny pink nightgown.